This is a shortened version of the glossary in my book, listing the terms of special importance to new mainstream models.
Like every specialty, modeling has its own jargon that outsiders and new models have trouble understanding. The definitions below will help you understand some of the confusing terms you may hear in the business. Because models also often end up doing TV commercials, we have included a few key terms from acting as well.
3/4 SHOTS: A photograph that shows a model from head to somewhat below the waist.
8x10 GLOSSY: A picture 8x10 inches in size, printed on high-gloss paper. It is the standard for actors’ headshots, and the term is often used as a noun. (“Eight-by-Ten Glossy”)
4 Plus 1: Actually the numbers could be anything. In this example, a client has booked a model for a four hour job, but is not comfortable that they will get done in four hours, so has requested the model be available for an extra hour if needed. In this case, the model would be paid for the four hours, but would get a fee for the extra time only if he actually worked it.
AFTRA: American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. The guild (union) with jurisdiction over much of radio and television production. Their charter overlaps somewhat with SAG. Generally, AFTRA has jurisdiction over products shot on tape, and SAG controls those shot on film, although that delineation is by no means precise.
1. Formally, a company which employs agents. Agents act for models and actors in negotiating and booking performance and modeling work, and often can sign contracts in the name of the model or performer and may collect the model’s fees from the clients. Generally has a contract of some sort with the model, and is compensated by taking a percentage of the model’s fees. In many States agencies are regulated and required to be licensed as employment agencies.
2. Informal term for a management company which also sometimes books models on jobs. The term is imprecisely used in this way, but that imprecise use is very common. In most States such management companies are regulated differently (if at all) from agencies and may not be required to be licensed. Informal use of the term “agency” may not necessarily mean the company is a true agency – it may be a management company instead.
AGENCY FEE: In many markets it is customary for the client to pay a service charge to the model agency in addition to the fees they pay the model. An “agency fee” of 20% is common in New York and many other markets.
ART DIRECTOR: At a magazine or advertising agency, the person responsible for creating the look and layout of an ad or editorial presentation. Their decisions may determine the kind of models used in the production, and even the specific model chosen.
BEAUTY SHOT: A closeup (head and shoulders) shot of the model which accentuates his or her good looks. Similar shots may be used in cosmetics, skin care or jewelry advertising. For many models the Beauty Shot is used similarly to a Head Shot, and may be on the front of a composite card.
BOARD: The models represented by an agency, usually categorized into specialized divisions. There may be a “New Faces Board,” a “Men’s Board” and a “Classic” board, for instance. The term derives from the practice of putting model’s composite cards on the wall, either by tacking them up to a cork board or by putting a number of comps for each model into individual holders so they can be easily grabbed by agents for composite pulls, or given to visiting clients.
BODY DOUBLE: A person who takes the place of another for body work. Typically used when a star of a movie does not want to personally do a nude scene.
BODY WORK: A photographic assignment that focuses on the body of the model. It may include posing in lingerie, bathing suits or nude. A “body model” is one who specializes in body work, normally based on excellence of physique, but also sometimes on similarity to a celebrity in body dimensions.
BONUS: Money given to a model in addition to the session fee. Bonuses are most commonly for usage rights, although they may be compensation for an unusually long or difficult assignment.
BOOKER: A person at a model agency who negotiates with clients to get and contract for work for models. The booker may have other responsibilities as well.
BOOKING AGENCY: A “booking agency” is one that primarily makes its money by getting work for models, as opposed to a “mother agency” or “personal manager” who prepares and presents models to the market, and then takes a percentage of the model’s earned fees when she gets work through a booking agency.
BREAKDOWN: A listing of the types and numbers of models or actors needed for a production, sent to model and talent agencies.
BUST: One of the three standard “stats” for female models. Measured around the back and the breast while wearing an unpadded bra. In model listings, will also often include the cup size.
BUYOUT: The client is purchasing unlimited usage rights to a model’s image, although a buyout may be only for a designated time period, geographic region or type of media. An example would be “two year print buyout in Spain, except for Internet”. If there are no qualifiers on the term, it means unlimited use for an unlimited time. See “usage”.
BY NAME REQUEST: A client has become aware of you somehow (from a previous job or go-see, from seeing your composite card or pictures on the agency website) and calls the agency specifically requesting you for a job. The request may be for another go-see or to book you into the job without further action on your part.
CALL-BACK: A request for a model to return after an initial go-see to help the clients make a final decision on who to book for a job. It means you have passed the first cut and are strongly in the running for the job. There can be more than one call-back before a final decision is made.
CALL TIME: The time the model is due on the set. Generally the model should show up 15 minutes or so before the actual call time.
CALL SHEET: A detailed listing of who the creative team is for a shoot. It may include everyone from the photographer, stylist, makeup artist, drivers and caterers. It should give the precise location and directions to the shoot, and instructions on how the model should arrive. Any makeup, hair, wardrobe or other requirements may be on the call sheet. Many modeling jobs do not use call sheets (or at least do not distribute them to agencies), and the information the model needs to know will be given by phone call to the agency, or directly to the model.
1. The process of choosing models for a job.
2. A go-see.
CASTING DIRECTOR: Normally an intermediary between the advertising agency (or client) and the modeling agency (or models) who finds and assembles a group of candidate models for a job and may make preliminary selections from among the applicants. There are casting companies which specialize in this role (also sometimes referred to as “casting agents”), but the casting director for a specific job may be the client, an advertising agency or magazine employee, the photographer or even the model agency.
CATALOG MODELING: Posing for photographs which will be used in a client’s catalogs. Usually this means modeling clothing for the catalog, although sometimes a model will be used to demonstrate other kinds of products.
CATTLE CALL: A casting that a large number of models (often hundreds) show up for because the casting director gave relatively broad direction to agencies, and may have used many agencies, or opened the casting to the public or advertised in in a newspaper, magazine or on the Internet. The probability of a model winning a cattle call casting is not great.
CHARACTER MODEL: A model who is hired to portray something other than an attractive role. They may be cast as medical patients, plumbers, computer nerds, Mafiosi or any of hundreds of other “non-modely” roles that are used in commercial advertising and editorials.
1. The person or company which pays for the production the model is hired to appear in.
2. Whoever hires the model or gives the casting call to the model agency. In this usage the “client” could be the photographer, ad agency or, possibly, casting director if they are the ones who make the initial or final choices on which models are used.
3. A model who is signed with an agency is often referred to by the agency as a “client”. This obviously can lead to some confusion, and the meaning has to be determined from context.
1. A TV advertisement.
2. Modeling work which is used in advertising such as magazine print ads.
3. A type of model (see “commercial look”)
COMMERCIAL LOOK: Generally refers to “mainstream” attractive, upscale looks. “Pretty” and “approachable” are commonly associated with “commercial”. Distinguished from “character” or “editorial” looks.
COMMERCIAL PRINT ADVERTISING: [/b] Formally, any advertisement that appears in print. However, the term is used to distinguish it from “fashion print,” which is clothing advertising such as catalog work. Generally, “commercial print” refers to modeling to advertise or promote anything except clothing, high-end hair and cosmetic products and jewelry. The definitions are not precise, and there is overlap between the various types of commercial modeling.
COMMISSION: A fee taken by an agency or manager based on fees earned by models. Typically it is a percentage of the model’s fees.
COMPOSITE CARD: (also “composites,” “comps” or “zed cards”.) A group of pictures (from one to as many as a dozen or more, depending on size and layout) of a model printed on card stock. The typical composite is printed on both sides of heavy, coated card stock and is roughly 5 ½ x 8 ½ inches. Some very experienced models produce “double” or even “triple” composite cards. A typical layout includes one headshot/beauty shot and the model’s name on the front of the card, and three or four pictures, the model’s stats and contact information on the reverse.
CONSUMER PUBLICATION: Publications (typically magazines or newspapers) which are aimed at the general population or consumers with a particular type of interest (such as a fishing magazine). Distinguished from “trade publications.”
COPYRIGHT: Literally, the right to make copies. Normally, the photographer or production company owns the copyright to photos unless there is a written agreement to the contrary. Virtually all photos made since 1989 are protected by copyright, and many made prior to that are also protected.
CRAFT SERVICES: The catering service for a shoot.
CREATIVE DIRECTOR: An advertising agency (or magazine) employee with overall responsibility for the creative design and direction of an ad (or editorial).
1. Turn exposed film into a picture.
2. Turn a person with modeling potential into a model who is ready to compete in the professional market.
DISCREET NUDE: A shot in which the model may be partially or fully nude, but the breasts (of a woman), genitalia or full buttocks are obscured in some manner so they do not show. Also called “implied nude”.
DOUBLE-PAGE SPREAD: A photograph which is printed in horizontal format across two pages of a magazine. Also called “double truck”.
DRESSER: A person who assists models in getting dressed at fashion shows. Dressers are needed because many fashion shows have very short turnaround time for a model from one outfit to the next.
DROPPED: Your agency chooses to no longer represent you.
1. Modeling for any “editorial” use, regardless of the subject matter. Covers of magazines, public service advertising, and photos used to illustrate a news story are all examples of editorial modeling. Generally, if a picture isn’t advertising, it’s editorial.
2. Modeling in pictures which illustrate stories or fashion trends in a fashion magazine. This is a subset of all editorial modeling, but is what fashion models and agencies refer to when they use the term “editorial”.
1. Photographs used to illustrate an editorial (regardless of type of editorial) story.
2. When used by fashion models and agencies, photography which is used to illustrate stories in fashion magazines
3. Photographs shot in the style of contemporary editorial fashion photography, regardless of how the pictures are actually used.
EDITORIAL RATES: Usually magazines, newspapers, book publishers, public service announcements and similar uses pay very little compared to commercial rates for models. In part this is because some editorials (by no means all) produce tear sheets which help advance a model’s career. In part, it is simply because they can, and models and their agencies have come to accept it.
1. An agreement between a model and an agency that the model will work exclusively through that agency. Exclusive agreements may be limited by time, geography (only in New York, for instance) or modeling/acting discipline (exclusive for on-camera TV commercials).
2. An agreement that a model will not allow her image to be used to advertise any competing product for a specified period of time. It may also include a prohibition against public criticism of the client’s product.
1. A model who works with the fashion industry. She may appear in fashion editorials, fashion advertising, catalogs or TV commercials, or may do showroom or fit modeling.
2. A model who is represented by an agency which specializes in fashion modeling.
3. Short for “editorial fashion model”, which many people consider “real fashion models”. These are the highly specialized models who appear in high-end fashion editorials and campaigns, and normally meet the stringent height, stats and appearance specifications that people associate with “a model”.
1. Photography used to sell clothes or other appearance items such as makeup, hair products and fashion accessories. Includes catalog style pictures.
2. Photography appearing in editorials in fashion magazines or high-end fashion advertising campaigns.
3. Photography in the style of contemporary “fashion editorial” or fashion advertising campaign pictures, however the shot may actually be used.
FASHION PRINT: Print advertising to sell clothing or other fashion items. Typically refers to catalog-type work rather than high-end editorial or fashion campaign work. Often referred to as “commercial fashion”.
FIT MODELING: The model has specific, exact measurements wanted by the designer, and puts on sample clothes to allow the designer or tailor to modify them to fit and move properly. Fit models can be of any type, although typically are size 6 for women, and size 40 regular for men.
FITTING: Trying on clothing before a fashion show or photo shoot to make sure there will be no surprises when the real event happens. For commercial shoots this may be simply to ensure the stylist has bought the right size clothes. For fashion events it may be more extensive, involving modifications to the clothing to make them work for the model.
1. A single amount of money given a model for a job, which includes the session and usage fees. Generally a flat fee is not based on an hourly rate, and (within reason) the model gets paid the same no matter how long the job takes.
2. An amount of money which includes both the model’s fee for the job and the agency service charge. This can lead to some confusion as the agency explains it to the model.
FLIP CARD: A simple version of a composite card, often used by new models or by experiences models as a supplement to their comp card. It may have only one picture on it, or one on each side of the card, together with their stats and contact data.
1. A model working without agency representation.
2. To work with multiple non-exclusive agencies.
FREEZE MODELING: A form of modeling in which the model remains motionless, simulating an inanimate mannequin. Often used in store displays.
GARMENT DISTRICT: The area in a city in which there is the largest concentration of fashion designers and manufacturers. In New York the Garment District is centered around Fashion Avenue (7th Avenue) but covers from 6th to 9th Avenues, roughly from the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) on 27th Street to Bryant Park (40th Street). There are subsets within the Garment District; a small area around FIT is the Fur District, while the Millinery District is just south of Bryant Park. In Los Angeles it is in the center of the city, and extends roughly from 6th Street to 14th Street between Broadway and San Pedro St.
GO-SEE: Literally taken from the phrase “go see someone”. In commercial work generally a go-see involves going to see (or be seen by) a person who is casting for a particular job. In fashion work it may be more general: you go see people who have a history of hiring models, so that when they have a job come up they will know who you are. Go-sees may be general (you are one of a type of model the client has asked for) or specific: the client has requested you specifically. See “by name request”.
GROSS: The amount a client pays for a model’s services. From that amount taxes, expenses or a model agency’s (or manager’s) commission may be taken before the model sees the check for the job. See “net”.
HALFTIME: One half the model’s negotiated hourly rate, typically paid for travel time to and from a remote shoot location.
HAUTE COUTURE: A French phrase meaning “high fashion”.
1. In acting, an 8x10 glossy picture which normally shows the head and shoulders of the actor. Except in California, headshots are almost always Black and White.
2. In modeling, a head and shoulders shot, often used on the front of a composite card. Frequently the same as a “beauty shot”.
HIPS: A model’s “hips” aren’t really measured at what people normally think of as her hips. The measurement is made around the fullest part of the butt.
HOURLY RATE: The base fee rate negotiated for a model’s time on the set of a job. Other fees (travel time, overtime, weekend or lingerie/nudity bonuses) may be based on that rate.
HOUSE MODEL: A model who is employed by a designer, showroom or, sometimes, a high-end retailer to routinely do modeling for her employer.
INDUSTRIAL: A video production that is not intended for broadcast, often used by a company for in-house training or sales.
INFORMAL MODELING: Generally an unstructured fashion show in which the model performs in a natural setting (as a store in a mall) and simply walks around among the customers showing them the clothes. Also called “tea room” modeling.
JUNIOR MODEL: A model who appears to be younger (and usually is smaller) than the typical adult model.
1. Copies of original designer clothing or accessories made by unauthorized companies.
2. Incorporation of major design elements from one designer line by another designer.
LIFESTYLE: A type of photography most often described as “real people doing real things.” In fact it is neither; the people are usually stereotypically mainstream upscale and attractive, and the things they are doing are idealized versions of what we envision people like that would do. Lifestyle photography is often referred to as “commercial”.
LOCATION: Any place pictures are shot that is not in a photo studio.
MADISON AVENUE: A street in Manhattan which is known for advertising agencies. Often used to refer generically to advertising.
MAJOR MARKET: A city with a wealth of modeling jobs and opportunities. For fashion models, New York is the only major market city in the United States; Paris, London, Milan and Tokyo qualify as major markets overseas. For commercial models, New York, Los Angeles and, to a lesser degree, Chicago, Miami and Dallas are major market cities. See “secondary market”.
1. A person or company which provides a wide range of services to a model, including development, marketing, placement with booking agencies, professional advice, accounting assistance and whatever the model needs to gain and maintain success in the marketplace. Also called a “personal manager”. These people usually have a relatively small number of models or actors under contract, and almost always require an exclusive contract with the model.
2. A company which provides many of the same services as a “personal manager” but also actively attempts to book jobs for the models. This is legal in some States and not in others. Where it is legal, this type of manager (or management company) is often referred to informally as an “agency” even though, formally, they are not. The management company may have many models, and may use either exclusive or non-exclusive contracts with its models, depending on their area of specialization and the customs of their city.
MARKET WEEK: A periodic time when a group of designers (clothing or accessories) show their lines to assembled buyers and the press. It may consist entirely of presentations in the designer’s showrooms or may include formal fashion shows. If the latter it is often referred to as a “Fashion Week”.
MODEL AGENCY: A company which represents models, attempts to get them work, and is compensated predominantly by taking a commission from work they have gotten the model. See also “manager” and a long discussion at
MODEL RELEASE: A legal document which gives a photographer, production company or advertising agency the right to publish and use a model’s photographs in specified ways. See the explanation at
MOTHER AGENCY: An agency or manager who puts a model under an exclusive contract and then promotes the model to booking agencies. Normally the mother agency develops the model. Generally the mother agent sponsors models to cities far from where the model lives and manages relationships between the booking agency and the model. A good mother agency will provide continuing advice, support and assistance to a model who is with another booking agency. Mother agencies are compensated by taking a percentage of the model’s earnings for some period of time. See the discussion at
NET: What’s left of your pay after all the deductions for expenses, taxes and commissions are taken out.
OPEN AUDITION: (In modeling, also an “open casting”.) An audition or go-see which is open to anyone who knows about it and meets the description in the breakdown. See “cattle call”.
OPEN CALL: A time when a model agency opens its doors to any aspiring model who wants to come in for an evaluation. Frequently open calls will be limited to certain types of person (as, “only men from 18-25 and 5’11” to 6’1” tall.)
OPTION: Also referred to as a “hold”. A client has requested the right of first refusal on a model during a specified time. That means the model is obligated to be available for the client’s job if booked, and may not accept any other assignment. A “first option” means that client has priority over any other for that time period. A “second option” (or “second hold”) means the client has a claim to the model if the person holding the first option decides not to book the model for that time.
PAYROLL COMPANY: Sometimes clients hire “payroll companies” to formally act as the employer of a model during a shoot. The payroll company will withhold taxes, make the employer’s contribution to Social Security and Medicare taxes, and send the model a W-2 at the end of the year, as a company would treat any other employee.
PER DIEM: Latin for “per day” which really means money you get for your living expenses while on assignment.
PETITE MODEL: Different kinds of modeling define what is “petite” differently. In fashion work a “petite” is normally a model who is 5’7” or less and wears a size 6 or less dress. In other kinds of modeling the meaning is closer to the general meaning of the term: small, without regard to specific criteria.
PLUS MODEL: In fashion modeling, refers to a model who wears a much larger dress size than the standard fashion model, but otherwise is similar to a typical fashion model. In most markets Plus models are from dress size 10 to 20, sometimes larger. The term is not widely used in commercial print modeling, although it is understood to mean someone of average or greater body dimensions.
PLUS TWENTY: (Also “plus ten” in acting.) A custom of adding a percentage to the model’s fee as a service charge to the model agency. The fee is paid by the client to the agency, and not counted as part of the model’s income. See “agency fee.”
1. (noun) A Polaroid instant picture. The term is a trademark of the Polaroid Corporation.
2. (verb) “To Polaroid” means to take simple pictures using an instant camera or digital camera, which show what the model actually looks like. Often done by clients at go-sees, or by agents for their new models.
POWER OF ATTORNEY: A document that gives someone else the legal right to act for you in certain specified ways.
PORTFOLIO: A collection of photographs and tear sheets of a model, compiled and presented in a book.
PORTFOLIO MILL: A company that makes its money from selling pictures to models while pretending to do something else for them (like getting them work).
PRINT: A communications medium which includes newspapers, magazines, billboards, signs on the sides of buses and in subways, inserts in newspapers, catalogs and many other forms.
PRINT MODEL: A model who specializes in being photographed for print materials, as opposed to live appearances such as fashion shows.
PROMOTIONAL MODELING: A model appears at an event or location to promote a product or service. The model may hand out samples, draw attention to a tradeshow booth or product, or demonstrate the use of a product to a crowd of people. Sometimes a promotional model is simply “eye candy” for an event.
READY-TO-WEAR: Clothing that can be purchased right off the rack at a retail store. This is to differentiate from one-of-a-kind clothing specifically made for that customer by the designer.
RESIDUALS: Money paid to a model or actor for continued use of their pictures after the photo shoot. In modeling “residuals” typically are paid when the usage rights originally purchased by the client have expired, and the client wants to continue to use the pictures.
RESUME: A one-page listing of an actor’s height, weight, contact information, and the most important acting jobs and training the actor has done. A resume is not normally used by a model, since her portfolio and composite card serve that purpose. Some "promotional modeling" companies want a resume, since promotional modeling is more akin to performing than to modeling.
RETOUCHING: The process of changing parts of a picture to remove flaws or adjust imperfections in the shot.
ROUNDS: Fashion model agencies often send their models to see prospective clients to introduce themselves. These are called “rounds”. Sometimes independent models do the same thing, from a list of photographers and other kinds of clients. Commercial agencies rarely to never send models on rounds.
SAG-FRANCHISED: An agency that has signed an agreement with SAG to abide by their regulations and guidelines.
SAG SIGNATORY: A production company that has signed a contract with SAG requiring them to follow SAG rules on a production.
SAMPLE SIZE: The size that the designer chooses to make sample garments in for models to wear. The sample size may vary depending on the intended customers: junior, plus, petite etc.
SASE: Self Addressed Stamped Envelope.
SCALE WAGE: The minimum wage and expense allowances allowed by union rules on a union production. Does not apply to print modeling jobs. .
SCREEN ACTORS GUILD: (“SAG”) The guild (union) which represents actors whose work appears on a TV or movie screen. SAG jurisdiction overlaps with AFTRA. Also see AFTRA.
SED CARD: (also in Europe, “SET CARD”.) A common misspelling of Zed Card
SECONDARY MARKET: A city in which a substantial amount of modeling opportunity exists, but without the large concentration of major advertising agencies, production companies, magazine publishers and fashion houses that exist in a major market city. In the United States, Miami, Atlanta, Dallas, Phoenix and San Francisco are generally thought of as secondary markets. Some commentators refer to Los Angeles, Chicago and Miami as secondary markets as well, although in some limited senses each could be considered a primary market city.
SHOWROOM: A place where designers show their collections to buyers and the press. Some designers have permanent showrooms, others do not. Most showrooms are not open to the public.
1. Under a representation contract with a model agency.
2. Under an exclusive contract with an agency. Many models who are freelancing are not considered “signed” even though they may have a contract with multiple agencies.
SPEC SHOOT: A photo shoot undertaken in the hopes that it can be sold to a client, but without a specific contract from the client. Another term for “I don’t want to pay you for doing this.”
SPECIALTY MODEL: A model who specializes in body parts such as hands, feet, legs, backs and other parts. Shoe models are a subset of this, since they have to have standard sized feet (size 6-7 for women, 10 for men).
STATS: (“Statistics”) A description of the model’s basic appearance parameters and sizes. For female models, stats usually include height, bust/waist/hips measurements, hair and eye color, shoe size and dress size. For male models stats include height, jacket size, neck, sleeve waist and inseam measurements, shoe size, and hair and eye color. For actors stats are limited to height, weight, hair and eye color. See “bust,” “waist” and “hips.”
STOCK PHOTOGRAPHER: A photographer who produces pictures without a specific client or job in mind, but with the hope of selling them to one or more clients later for use in advertising or editorials.
STYLIST: A person who may select and assemble clothing and accessories for a shoot and assure fit, assists in achieving the look and feel that a photographer wants on a set, or assists with accessories at a fashion show. The stylist may set the design of hair and makeup for the production, but will not normally do hair and makeup herself.
TALENT AGENCY: An agency who represents performing artists such as actors, singers and dancers.
TEARSHEET: The actual printed page from a newspaper, magazine or ad that a model’s photograph is published in. So called because it is “torn” from the magazine. Appearance on a website does not result in a tearsheet.
TEST SHOOT: In years long gone by, a “test shoot” would be one in which a photographer had a new film, piece of equipment or technique he wanted to try out, or a model he wanted to try shooting in anticipation of using her later for a job. Usually in such shoots no money changed hands, and at most the model was asked to pay for the cost of having prints made for her book. More recently, “testing” has also come to mean any shoots for a model’s portfolio or composite card, and it is commonplace for photographers to charge for their services.
TEST PHOTOGRAPHER: A photographer who specializes in doing test shoots for model’s portfolios. Many test photographers charge for the shoot.
TFP/TFCD: (Time for Prints/Time for CD of pictures.) A term used almost exclusively among Internet models and photographers to describe a shoot in which little or no money changes hands and the model receives prints or a CD of digital images for posing for a photographer. In the “real world” arrangements similar to this are referred to as “testing”, although photographers may charge a model for a test. See the discussion at
TRUNK SHOW: An informal fashion show of a particular designer’s line in a retail store, so called because of the image of the designer trundling around a trunk full of clothes to unpack for the show, then packs them up and moves on to the next city. The models may be hired to travel with the designer to do the shows.
TYPE: One of the fundamental concepts of commercial print modeling. Everyone has an image of what a banker, a dirt biker, a computer nerd and a young father look like. These stereotypical images define a “type”, and people who resemble them and other types are chosen to go on castings when the breakdown calls for their “type.”
USAGE FEE: Models get paid for two things: work they do on the set, and the right to use their images in advertising. Sometimes the fee will be “flat,” meaning it includes both. But often the two will be separately listed in the booking, and the model will get paid for a specific, limited use of their pictures. If the client wants to do something more than what they paid for (different kind of publication media, different target audience, longer time, different geographical region) the model will get more money for additional usage.
USAGE LICENSE: A document or informal agreement from the photographer which defines what you can do with pictures taken of you. See the discussion at
VOUCHER: A form used by agency models to document the work they did on a job, the fees that are to be paid for it (and usage agreed to), and the agency’s fee. Most vouchers are signed by both the model and representative of the client. A copy is then given to the model, the client and the model agency. It is used by the model agency to bill the client for the model’s work. The voucher also acts as the model release for the job. Here is a sample of a "long form" voucher:
WAIST: For models, the waist is measured around the smallest part, without sucking the stomach in.
WORKSHOP: A gathering of instructors and students to learn and practice the arts of photography and modeling.
ZED CARD: On the West coast of the United States, a synonym for “composite card”. Derived from the fact that a “triple” composite card can be folded into the shape of a “Z” (in Britain and the Colonies, “Z” is pronounced “zed”) when viewed from the side. Also called a "set card" in some European countries. See “composite card.”